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This article provides an up-to-date survey of hybrid fiber-wireless (FiWi) access networks that leverage on the respective strengths of optical and wireless. A definitive objective of Fiber-Wireless (FiWi) systems is the meeting of different optical and wireless innovations under a solitary base keeping in mind the end. Survey Smoothly Fiber-Wireless (FiWi) Accessing Wireless Networks: Convergence and Challenges. Naseer Hwaidi Alkhazaali, Raed Abduljabbar Aljiznawi.

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Arguing that due to its unique properties optical fiber is likely to entirely replace copper wires in the near-to midterm, we will elaborate on the final frontier of optical networks, namely, the convergence with their wireless counterparts. Peer-to-peer communications in FiWi access networks [ 42 ]. By combining the capacity of optical fiber networks with the ubiquity and mobility of wireless networks, FiWi networks form a powerful platform for the support and creation of emerging as well as future unforeseen applications and services.

This architecture provides cost-effectiveness, bandwidth efficiency, wide coverage, high flexibility, and scalability. When traffic increases and the utilization of the established lightpaths is low, the load on the existing lightpaths is increased by means of load balancing. Finally, the quality of the wireless signal has to be at least the threshold of an acceptable carrier-to-interference ratio.

Multipath routing and its implications have been studied in greater detail in [ 54 ].

Survey on Integrated Fiber-Wireless ( FiWi ) Access Network Architectures

To meet these requirements, only optical fiber represents a viable option for CPRI backhaul transport. In the event of one or more FiWi network failures, the risk list of affected mesh routers is updated accordingly.

In this section, we review a variety of proposed routing algorithms that aim at optimizing the network performance in terms of delay, throughput, packet loss, load balancing, and other important metrics such as path availability and power consumption.

All of the discussed wireless routing algorithms aim at finding the optimal zccess through a wireless mesh front-end by meeting one or more objectives. It was shown by means of simulation that the availability-aware routing algorithm is able to achieve a higher average availability for the selected fiberw-ireless than the shortest path routing, especially at low traffic loads.

Fiber-wireless (FiWi) access networks: A survey – Semantic Scholar

An efficient algorithm for optimal integrated points placement in hybrid optical-wireless access networks Yu LiuChi ZhouYu Cheng According to a recent OECD report on the future digital economy, one of the most promising applications of M2M communications is smart metering, which represents one of the first steps toward realizing the vision of the smart power grid [ ].

A given wireless mesh source node uses this information for computation of the minimum delay path to the OLT. Thus, these findings show that FiWi networks are particularly beneficial for supporting peer-to-peer communications among wireless mesh clients and are able acdess achieve a significantly higher network throughput than conventional WMNs.


RoF networks have been studied for many years as an approach to integrate optical fiber and wireless networks. Instead of overprovisioning based on the peak traffic demand, fibrr-wireless is desirable to reallocate bandwidth among multiple PONs by utilizing tunable transceivers at the ONUs. Fiber to the x Network topology.

In the former case, the throughput of FiWi networks is limited by the bandwidth bottleneck and interferences of communications in the wireless subnetwork. In fact, in emerging LTE-A heterogeneous networks HetNetswhere femtocells with small, inexpensive, and low-power BSs are introduced to supplement existing macrocells for the sake of an improved indoor coverage, enhanced cell-edge user performance, and boosted spectral efficiency per area unit, a cellular paradigm shift is required that recognizes the importance of high-speed backhaul connections, given that most 4G research so far has been focusing on the achievable performance gains in the wireless front-end only without looking into surveg details of backhaul implementations and possible backhaul bottlenecks [ 86 ].

The throughput-delay performance of FiWi networks for peer-to-peer communications can be further improved by means of direct inter-ONU communications. Today, Internet technology and renewable energies are beginning to nrtworks in Europe, North America, and other regions worldwide in order viber-wireless create an interactive, integrated, and seamless Energy Internet infrastructure for the so-called Third Industrial Revolution TIR economy, which goes well beyond current austerity measures and has been officially endorsed by the European Commission as economic growth roadmap toward a competitive low carbon society by [ ], as discussed in more detail next.

Moreover, it was shown that multipath routing helps further improve the availability compared to single-path routing. According to the Federal Communications Commission FCCbroadband enables individuals and enterprises to access a wide range of resources, services, and products fiber-wirless to education, culture, entertainment, telemedicine, e-commerce, public safety, and homeland security.

FiWi research inquires new methods of optical RF generation accesz fiber nonlinearities and various modulation techniques. Specifically, to avoid the electronic bottleneck, the generation of RF survdy is best done optically. If a failure occurs, the risk list is updated and subsequent packets are rerouted. As we will see shortly, different challenges were addressed such accesx routing and wireless channel assignment, which can be performed completely either in surrvey wireless domain by the base station BS or access point APor by an optical network element, for example, CO or optical line terminal OLT.

Since the optical backhaul and WMN use different technologies, an interface is xccess between each ONU and the corresponding wireless gateway in order to monitor the WMN and perform route computation taking the state of wireless links and average traffic rates into account.

OW may be deployed as a temporary backbone for rapidly deployable x wireless communication infrastructure, especially in densely populated urban areas. According to [ 23 ], the following four architectures can be used. In particular, energy generation and distribution systems play a crucial role. In contrast, the throughput of FiWi networks decreases to a much lesser extent for increasing peer-to-peer traffic due to the above-described wireless-optical-wireless communications mode of FiWi networks.


As shown in Figure 4suppose that wireless mesh client wants to communicate with mesh client. OBWMA supports two traffic classes.

FMC can be done at different levels, for example, business or service provisioning level. To measure the network throughput gain in FiWi networks, a linear programming based routing algorithm was proposed in [ 43 ].

Fiber-wireless (FiWi) access networks: A survey

Given that most 4G cellular mobile acceess researches so far have been focusing on the achievable performance gains in the wireless front-end only without looking into the details of backhaul implementations and possible backhaul bottlenecks, we identify open key research challenges w FiWi fibdr-wireless access networks.

To help identify open key research challenges for NG-PONs and converged FiWi broadband access networks, it is important to consider emerging trends in related areas in order to shift the post NG-PON2 research focus from mere capacity provisioning to more lucrative solution offerings by developing holistic groundbreaking solutions across multiple economic sectors other than telecommunications per se.

Optical fiber provides an unprecedented bandwidth potential that is far in excess of any other known transmission medium and offers significantly longer ranges without requiring any active devices.

The presented results show that the greedy algorithm performs better for deterministic rather than random ONU placement. More precisely, if the primary gateway fails, then all the paths to that gateway become stale and packets destined for the primary gateway are rerouted through live PGG paths. More specifically, the OLT is equipped with an array of fixed-tuned transmitters and an array of fixed-tuned receivers, each operating on a different dedicated wavelength channel, for transmitting and receiving data to and from the ONUs.

If the overall delay is smaller than a prespecified delay bound the service request is accepted.

To cope with packet loss, the so-called risk-and-delay aware routing RADAR algorithm was studied in [ 40 ]. Future broadband access networks not only have to provide access to information when we need it, where we need it, and in whatever format we need it, but also, and arguably more importantly, have to bridge the digital divide and offer simplicity and user-friendliness based on open standards in order to stimulate the design of new applications and services.

FTTCab is also used by cable network operators to build hybrid fiber-coax HFC networks, where the drop lines are realized through coax cables instead of twisted pairs. A number of different remodulation schemes have been proposed and investigated, for example, differentiated phase-shift keying DPSK for downstream and on-off-keying OOK for upstream, optical carrier suppression OCS for downstream and reused for upstream, or PM for downstream and directly modulated semiconductor optical amplifier SOA for upstream.

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